HowTo: Perform “On Behalf Of” Calls Using Azure Active Directory

Probably every developer out there is familiar with the scenario of a UI-driven application (let’s say a web app) that needs to make calls to a backend service, and in quite a few of those scenarios the backend service needs to know which user is logged in in order to fullfill the request. And if you have ever been in charge of deciding on an implementation for this, you have been at the crossroads: do I go with the full-fledged impersonation / delegation solution, or do I conveniently decide that I trust the web app to make the correct calls?

If you’ve chosen the latter, you went with the so-called trusted subsystem architecture. Simply put: your backend service is treating the web app as a system that can be trusted to properly authenticate end users, and only perform backend service calls if and when appropriate, possibly including end user identifiers (such as usernames) as part of these calls.

Trusted Subsystem
The Trusted Subsystem solution

If you opted for the full-fledged impersonation and delegation solution, you probably learned very soon that this is hard. In the old on-prem enterprise world, you would have to learn about the intimate details of Kerberos Constrained Delegation. And if you were ‘lucky’ enough to be working with WIF and WS-Federation or SAML, you would find out that these protocols do support these scenarios, but still make it pulling-your-hair-out-difficult to implement. And now we’re just calling one downstream service from our web app; once we need to call yet another service from the first service, we more often than not just give up and go with the trusted subsystem approach after all.

Azure Active Directory To The Rescue

Luckily, SAML and WS-* are no longer the only protocols available. OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect have been gaining momentum for some time now, and are treated as first class citizens in the latest Identity & Access Management solutions that Microsoft is offering, especially Azure Active Directory. To add to that, Microsoft has provided a client-side library called ADAL (Active Directory Authentication Library) for a variety of platforms (including AngularJS and iOS for example) to simplify interaction with Azure Active Directory as much as possible.

And the good news is: even impersonation and delegation has gotten really simple, with a lot less moving parts on the client. (Everyone who has ever struggled with config files trying to get this to work using WS-* and WIF knows exactly what I mean…)

The guys at Microsoft are also putting a lot of effort into code samples on Github that show how to use Azure AD and ADAL to get all sorts of scenarios working.


The On Behalf Of scenario is also available on there. It’s a native client that calls an API, which in turn calls the Graph API on behalf of the logged in user. Obviously, the native client app can be substituted for an ASP.NET Core MVC web app, as shown in this repo.

Not every platform-scenario-combo is available. For example, the API calling another API scenario (i.e. the On Behalf Of scenario) is not available in its ASP.NET Core incarnation. And since the code to achieve this for ASP.NET Core Web API is not readily deducible from the native client sample that is only available with a ASP.NET Web API, I’d like to share some of it here.

First of all, the middleware to wire up an ASP.NET Core Web API to actually consume tokens is a bit different from how it used to be done. You can take you queue from the aforementioned repo; just make sure to save the token you receive so that you can access it later:

app.UseJwtBearerAuthentication(new JwtBearerOptions
    AutomaticAuthenticate = true,
    AutomaticChallenge = true,
    Authority = String.Format(Configuration["AzureAd:AadInstance"], Configuration["AzureAD:Tenant"]),
    Audience = Configuration["AzureAd:Audience"],
    SaveToken = true

Actually using this token to bootstrap the On Behalf Of flow works like this:

var authority = [insert authority here];
var clientId = [insert client ID here];
var clientSecret = [insert client secret here];
var resourceId = [insert the resource ID for the called API here];

AuthenticationContext authContext = new AuthenticationContext(authority);
ClientCredential credential = new ClientCredential(clientId, clientSecret);
AuthenticateInfo info = await HttpContext.Authentication.GetAuthenticateInfoAsync(JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme);
var token = info.Properties.Items[".Token.access_token"];
var username = User.FindFirst(ClaimTypes.Upn).Value;
var userAssertion = new UserAssertion(token, "urn:ietf:params:oauth:grant-type:jwt-bearer", username);
AuthenticationResult result = await authContext.AcquireTokenAsync(resourceId, credential, userAssertion);

The AuthenticationResult that ADAL is returning here contains an Access Token that can be used to call the downstream Web API. Simple, right? OK, it involves some code, but it’s pretty straighforward when compared to a WS-*-and-a-WCF-service scenario I wrote about earlier.

Enter Microservices

As said before, we’ve all encountered On Behalf Of scenarios and the perils of getting them to work using SAML, WS-* or Kerberos, and more often than not we gave up on the full-fledged scenario. But in an increasingly API-centered world, we are calling other external services much more frequently than we did only a couple of years ago. And now that microservices gains a lot of momentum as an architectural style, this frequency increases even more since fulfilling a user request in a microservices environment is pretty much always a matter of multiple services collaborating.

Advocates of microservices recognize that flowing user identities through services is a concern that deserves more attention in a microservices architecture. Sam Newman, for example, discusses this issue in his book Building Microservices, in a paragraph aptly titled “The Deputy Problem”.

He recognizes the ease of use that comes with OpenID Connect and OAuth 2.0. And while he is still somewhat skeptical about whether these protocols will make it into the mainstream market any time soon, for all you dev’s out there that are on the Microsoft ecosystem, this is not a concern anymore.

Extending The Scenario

Obviously, we want to do more than simply impersonate end users when calling downstream services. Especially in a microservices environment, where multiple clients are calling multiple services for even the most mundane of tasks, we may want to have varying levels of trust: “Sure, I’d be more than happy to perform this request for the user, but only if he is calling me through an application that is entrusted to make these types of delegated calls.” In order words, you may want to base your authorization decisions on characteristics of both the end user and the calling app.

Azure Active Directory is capable of handing these types of scenarios as well, for example by using scopes. I’m not getting into those now, but I’ll be teaming up with my colleague Jurgen van den Broek for a session at the Dutch TechDays 2016, in which we will cover these and a lot more scenarios – including a peek into the future by discussing what the AAD v2 endpoint brings to the table.

Immediately after the TechDays session, I’ll update this post with a link to the full code sample. So stay tuned, and feel free to post a comment if you need help in the meantime.


What Exactly Is That CORS-Thing?? The What, the Why and the How Explained

If you’ve stumbled upon this post, chances are you’ve encountered some strange behavior while trying to call an endpoint, like a REST API for example, from within the browser. You may have seen your browser issue an OPTIONS request that is greeted with a 405 Method Not Allowed issued by the API.


If this has happened to you, you are probably serving the JavaScript from another application than the one hosting the API.

You were probably expecting an XmlHttpRequest fetching a JSON document instead of that failed OPTIONS request, so read on to find out what’s going on and what you can do to successfully call that API.

So What’s CORS?

In short, you would probably benefit from enabling CORS on your API. CORS is short for Cross Origin Resource Sharing, and enabling CORS is basically a way of allowing your web application to call the API from the client browser, while that API is hosted on a host different than the one your web application is served from. You are not allowed to do that out of the box for security reasons. If you are only interested in actually getting this to work, feel free to skip to the How-part of this post.

OK, so you are interested in a little more background. As said, you can’t call API’s from the browser out of the box if they do not reside on the same host (‘have the same origin’) as the web application. Same origin here means: same URI scheme, hostname and port number. This behavior is enforced by the browser. If a piece of JavaScript attempts to call an API of different origin than its own, the browser will first makes a pre-flight request to the target server to ask whether the server is OK with being called from another origin. Enabling CORS means: instructing the API on how to meaningfully respond to such pre-flight requests. Without CORS enabled, API’s typically respond with the 405 we talked about. Most modern browsers support this pre-flight request, which is a prerequisite for using CORS.


The ‘security reasons’ behind all this are known as the same-origin policy. According to this principle, resources are isolated from each other on the basis of their origin. So, a piece of script for example can only access other documents in the browser when they share the same origin, and it can only call endpoints on that same origin; all resources from other origins are off-limits.



This makes good sense, because failure to restrict this would mean that a malicious web page that is opened in a user’s browser session would have access to all documents and endpoints for other websites the user is also visiting. Imagine one of these other websites being your personal banking environment, and you probably get why the same-origin policy is kind of a good thing.

But obviously, there are also legitimate use cases for cross-origin API calls. Strategists, visionaries and evangelists preach the API-driven world, in which every company should disclose their processes through API’s to be consumed by clients. Those clients typically will not reside on the same origin, but we do want them to be able to call our API’s.

In recent years, several hacks have been conjured up to bypass the same-origin policy, with JSONP being one of the more prominent ones. I won’t dive into the specifics here; you can read all about it online. The issue with JSONP (apart from some sophisticated exploits) is that, as an API publisher, you open up your API for all origins by definition. And this is where CORS comes in: a controlled way of whitelisting some origins while treating all others according to the same-origin policy. And, as a bonus, the implementation is much easier: CORS is entirely a server-side setting, whereas JSONP requires the client to do part of the heavy lifting.


So, on to the actual way of doing this. And this is actually the simplest part: you just need to make sure that the API responds differently to the OPTIONS request. What the browser is actually asking, by means of the Origin header it sends along, is whether the specified origin is allowed to call the API. The API may either not allow this at all (the default), only allow a specific list of origins, or allow all origins. And it communicates this by including a Access-Control-Allow-Origin header to the response to the pre-flight request.


A specific value is indicative of an API that allows this specific origin. Alternatively, an asterisk (*) indicates that all origins are allowed.

For a .NET-based WebAPI, you can use OWIN middleware or the WebAPI CORS package, depending on your application architecture and the requirements. The use of CORS through OWIN middleware is nicely described here, while the CORS package method is detailed over here.

public partial class Startup
    public void Configuration(IAppBuilder app)

And yes, you can only enable CORS on the API side; not on the caller side. After all, the same origin policy is meant to protect the API from access by malicious websites the user may be visiting.

Hope this helps!